What Is Diabetes mellitus? Manage it in the Right Way!

Diabetes mellitus
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Introduction

Even if you’ve been living with diabetes [1] for some time, you’ve come to the right place to get information and support. Starting here, you’ll have access to all the information you need to lead a healthy lifestyle, including what causes diabetes and how to manage diabetes. Regardless of your current condition, know that you have options and are not restricted by your diabetes. You can still have the life of your dreams, even if you’ve been diagnosed with it. Action and persistence are all that is needed for the management of Diabetes Mellitus.

What is Diabetes Mellitus?

Diabetes, also called Diabetes Mellitus, is a medical condition in which either the body does not create enough insulin or the cells are unable to use insulin adequately. Insulin is a hormone generated by the pancreatic gland that regulates the amount of glucose (a form of sugar) in the blood. As a result, if you have diabetes, your blood glucose (also known as blood sugar) becomes extremely high.

Although there is no cure for diabetes, lifestyle changes (diet and exercise) and medication can be used to control the disease. High blood sugar levels can cause a wide range of health problems, including nerve damage, kidney problems, heart disease, strokes, peripheral artery disease (which causes leg soreness and foot ulcers), blindness, and vision loss.

If you have recently been diagnosed with diabetes, you may find the amount of information overwhelming. Take the time to comprehend what a diabetes diagnosis implies for your health. Over time, it will become simpler to manage the drugs, lifestyle adjustments, and test results you must monitor. If you maintain communication with your diabetes care team, you can bring your sugar levels under control.

Diabetes Mellitus

What Causes Diabetes?

Although all kinds of diabetes entail problems with blood glucose management, type 1 and type 2 diabetes, as well as gestational diabetes, have distinct root causes. So, what causes diabetes? Let’s have a look…

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Type 1 Diabetes

In type 1 diabetes, the pancreatic (organ located behind the stomach) cells that create insulin are destroyed by the body’s immune system. Without the ability to manufacture insulin, individuals with diabetes are unable to convert glucose in the blood into energy. They must thus rely on alternate insulin supplies (injections or pumps) for survival. 

Without insulin to convert glucose, the body burns fat for energy, generating acidic compounds known as ketones. This can result in injury or even death. The term for this ailment is ketoacidosis. 

Although the origin of type 1 diabetes is uncertain, genetic predispositions are believed to have a role. Changes in lifestyle and food cannot prevent type 1 diabetes, but they are essential for managing the disease.

Type 2 Diabetes 

Underlying insulin resistance causes type 2 diabetes. This resistance grows over time as the pancreas must continuously generate more and more insulin to control blood sugar levels. 

After perhaps decades of increased insulin levels, the pancreatic cells responsible for insulin production gradually lose function. Typically, the pancreas of individuals diagnosed with type 2 diabetes has lost approximately 50% of its capacity to produce insulin. 

People with a family history of diabetes are at a higher risk of getting type 2 diabetes, but the condition is also closely linked to lifestyle and food. For example, people who consume an unhealthy diet, are physically sedentary, or are overweight or obese have a significantly increased chance of acquiring type 2 diabetes. 

Insulin resistance can be exacerbated by hypertension, abdominal obesity, and poor eating habits, leading to type 2 diabetes. Diabetes can occur at any age but is more prevalent in individuals over 40. 

Gestational Diabetes 

During pregnancy, the placenta produces hormones that aid in the growth and development of the baby, but these hormones also reduce the efficiency of the mother’s insulin. In women without underlying insulin resistance, the pancreas may quickly compensate for this decrease in insulin efficacy. If the mother additionally has insulin resistance, the decreased efficiency of insulin can lead to high blood sugar levels and a diagnosis of gestational diabetes. 

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After pregnancy, the blood sugar levels of women with gestational diabetes often recover to normal.

How Is Diabetes Treated?

Changes in lifestyle, such as increased physical activity and a balanced diet, are the most effective methods for managing Diabetes Mellitus, [3] particularly type 2 diabetes. As carbs contribute to elevated blood sugar, counting the carbohydrates in your meal should become habitual. In addition, regularly trained muscles utilize glucose more effectively than sedentary muscles. In addition to these lifestyle modifications, both type 1 and type 2 diabetes can be treated with medication. 

Type 1 Diabetes

Since most or all of their insulin-producing cells are often gone by the time they are diagnosed, type 1 diabetics must inject insulin. There are several methods for administering insulin, including syringes, pens, and insulin pumps. The optimal strategy varies on the individual and is determined in collaboration with the diabetes care team.

Type 2 Diabetes

Changes in lifestyle, such as food and exercise, are the primary and most essential treatments for patients with type 2 diabetes. If these modifications do not effectively regulate blood sugar, medication will probably be necessary. However, the choice of medication relies on the individual’s needs and the underlying cause of diabetes.

Conclusion

Individuals are responsible for the management of Diabetes Mellitus. This includes monitoring blood glucose levels, nutritional management, maintaining physical exercise, controlling weight and stress, monitoring oral medicines, and, if necessary, insulin injections or an insulin pump.

  1. Managing your diabeteshttps://www.diabetesaustralia.com.au › managing-your-…
  2. https://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.501.7457&rep=rep1&type=pdf 
  3. Diabetes Mellitus Treatment – UCSF Healthhttps://www.ucsfhealth.org › conditions › treatment 
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